COVID-19 Vaccine and Development Stages

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COVID-19 Vaccine and Development Stages
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Background

COVID-19 vaccine, the world is expecting it early because the rate of infection across the world is much higher than expected. India is the second-worst affected country hit by the epidemic, with over 1. 2 million cases. The virus spread rapidly and the majority of the world’s population is susceptible to it. The scientists and medical researchers all around the world are working relentlessly for the development of a safe and effective vaccine. Thanks to the COVID-19 warriors & entire medical researchers and scientists for their involvement towards humanity.

What is Vaccine?

vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. a vaccine is a preparation that helps to protect against certain diseases. vaccines contain a dead or weakened form of a microbe. Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective method of protecting people against risky diseases before they come into contact with them.

Different Stages of Vaccine Development:

Vaccine development is a challenging and extensive technique that may take several years. Generally, vaccines require a number of months to qualify the different stages of testing which ensures it is safe, effective, and approvals also it takes time. 

  • Investigative Stage:

Identification of virus or antigen which capable to increase body resistant power.

  • Preclinical Trial:

The probable vaccine is tested in laboratory animals which help to understand it’s viability, effectiveness, iterative testing, pharmacokinetic information and drug safety data. It includes testing in model organisms. Human immortalized cell lines and other human tissues may also be used.

  • Clinical Trial:

Once the vaccine makes it through the preclinical stage. The drug proceeds for the next phases of clinical testing on humans.

  1. Phase 1 Clinical Trial: The vaccine is tested on 20 to 100 healthy adults for safety to see how it works. Testing of vaccine on healthy volunteers for safety it involves testing multiple doses.
  2. Phase 2 Clinical Trial: The vaccine is tested on a 100 to 300 healthy adults. Testing of vaccine on patients to assess efficacy and side effects. At this phase, the vaccine is not supposed to have any therapeutic effect. The vaccine is assessed for safety, resistant power, delivery technique, suitable dose and design.
  3. Phase 3 Clinical Trial: The vaccine is tested on 300 to around 3000 healthy adults to access safety and efficacy.
  4. Phase 4 Clinical Trial: The regulatory authority assesses the clinical trial data of the vaccine to understand whether it is safe and effective against the disease in all populations, and if it can be used for different strains of the corona virus, which might start mutating as time passes.

Conclusions

Development of a vaccine is a multiphase process which require extensive resources and it involves severe efforts and commitment over several years.

The government is also helping the healthcare industry to speed up the development process of safe and effective vaccines on COVID-19. Until the vaccine is developed, together we can help to flatten the curve by taking necessary precautions such as cleaning hands frequently, maintaining a safe distance, wearing a mask, staying home if feeling unwell.

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